To install Golang on Ubuntu you will need to add a PPA repo:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:longsleep/golang-backports
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install golang-go

It does not give you the latest minor version but tends to give to the latest major version. Golang 1.8.3 is released and as of today I still get 1.8.1 via this PPA repo.